The Civil War.

http://studymore.org.uk/7.htm#1754

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madhouses_Act_1774

By the mid-eighteenth century, the common method in the United Kingdom for dealing with the insane was either to keep them in the family home, or to put them in a “madhouse”, which was simply a private house whose proprietor was paid to detain their residents, and ran it as a commercial concern with little or no medical involvement. This led to two forms of abuse; the first was the keeping of “legitimately” insane people in atrocious conditions, and the second the detention of those who were falsely claimed to be insane – in effect, private imprisonment.

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