The Middle Ages.

Causes of mental illness included:

  • Supernatural causes such as demons and demonic possession.
  • Witchcraft and sorcery.
  • Mass hysteria.
  • Melancholy and stress.

Treatments for mental illness included:

  • Exorcism.
  • Shaving the pattern of a cross in the head-hair.
  • Believe that those suffering from mental illness could benefit from hearing mass.
  • Drinking ice-cold water.

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