Mental Health spending cuts.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-32596748 Data from three-quarters of trusts shows from 2014-15 to 2018-19 income is expected to fall by 8% in real terms. The forecasts were submitted to regulators last summer – before extra money was promised in the last Budget. But NHS England said accurate predictions could not be made until a new government set out spending plans.The …

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Vagus nerve stimulation.

http://www.medicinenet.com/vagus_nerve_stimulation_vns/article.htm Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a technique used to treat epilepsy. It involves implanting a pacemaker-like device that generates pulses of electricity to stimulate the vagus nerve. The vagus nerve is one of the 12 cranial nerves, the paired nerves that attach to the undersurface of the brain and relay information to and from the …

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What drugs do we use?

http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/mental-health-disorders/overview-of-mental-health-care/treatment-of-mental-illness The most widely used class of antidepressants is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, and citalopram (see Mood Disorders:Drug therapy). Other classes of antidepressants include serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), such as venlafaxine, duloxetine, or desvenlafaxine, and norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, such as bupropion. Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptlyine and nortriptyline are seldom used, unless people also have a disorder causing pain that interferes with activities and …

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The Civil War.

http://studymore.org.uk/7.htm#1754 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madhouses_Act_1774 By the mid-eighteenth century, the common method in the United Kingdom for dealing with the insane was either to keep them in the family home, or to put them in a “madhouse”, which was simply a private house whose proprietor was paid to detain their residents, and ran it as a commercial concern …

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The Tudors.

http://englishhistory.net/tudor/mental-illness-facts/ Early Tudor medical opinion believed there were 5 types of mental disease: MELANCHOLIA (depression and apathy); MANIA (violent action); DELIRIUM (abnormal behavior accompanied by fever); AMENTIA (lack or complete loss of mental abilities); and PHRENITIS (inflammation of the brain.) Also, epilepsy was believed to be a mental illness. (Also, there was a disease called …

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The Middle Ages.

http://mentalillness.umwblogs.org/middle-ages/ Causes of mental illness included: Supernatural causes such as demons and demonic possession. Witchcraft and sorcery. Mass hysteria. Melancholy and stress. Treatments for mental illness included: Exorcism. Shaving the pattern of a cross in the head-hair. Believe that those suffering from mental illness could benefit from hearing mass. Drinking ice-cold water.

Hospital Icons.

There aren’t many symbols used in hospitals. Just basic arrows and signs that you normally see. I want to do something in the same style like above. Very simple shapes used to represent things clearly, I don’t want to be vague.

Symbolism.

As I am not a massive illustrator vector based illustrations or symbols would be the most appropriate. I think that if I want to put it in a hospital then simple symbols will fit the environment thats its put in. Using symbols will mean that the time that everyone will be able to understand the …

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New Idea.

Instead of making a book comparing the then and now, after talking to Paddy, I now want to make a long timeline showing the progression of mental health treatments. I think this in itself will provoke as it will show the evolution of the treatments.

Placement of timeline.

I want to put the timeline in a hospital. Idealy I would want to put it in a psychiatric ward or something, where mental health is treated, or even a therapists reception to represent and provoke the viewer. I’m not sure how feasible this is because its not really acceptable to go round taking pictures …

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Chineasy.

Using basic simples to create bodies of texts and sentences in a really simple way. Chineasy uses chinese symbols and makes them into little images to help you learn chinese quicker and in a way that is more effective to remember.

Perspective Art.

Using this concept I was thinking of creating some kind of type image that only came together when you were at a certain place in a room to create the whole image to do with mental health, then the rest of the time it just looked like random things in a room.

Acetate.

Create an installation using acetate. Layers of acetate that line up at the front to make solid type but the typography on each layer will tell the story of past and present methods of the treatment.

Typographic ideas.

Using thermochromic paint to cover the type. I would use the ink to create small the type so it looked like the word on a page. The word would disappear and underneath it would reveal the equipment used or things that describe the word. the word would either be the a treatment that they used …

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Using type?

Instead of using images in a book could type be used with the imagery. By using illustration with the type to try and translate what I want to. http://www.creativebloq.com/typography/spot-hidden-tributes-these-celebrity-inspired-fonts-11514004 Patrik Svensson did these typographic names. I like the simplicity of the type and the way you have to concentrate on the words to see the …

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Gunther von Hagens.

Thinking about showing the human body and how others have done so. Gunther von Hagens is an artist who uses bodies that have been donated to science, and uses them to create art. These pieces are beautiful. The detail of the workings of the body are fascinating, and I could use such detail in my work. Shows …

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What did they think caused instability?

Menstruation-related anger Pregnancy-related sadness Post-partum depression symptoms Disobedience Chronic fatigue syndrome Anxiety Two major figures in the Victorian mental health field were James Conolly, author of The Construction and Government of Lunatic Asylums (1847) and Henry Maudsley, whose influential books included The Physiology and Pathology of Mind (1867). Regarded at the time as progressive and …

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Talking therapy.

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/stress-anxiety-depression/Pages/benefits-of-talking-therapy.aspx Research shows that talking therapies work just as well whether you’re old or young, male or female, white or black, gay or straight, rich or poor. Your educational background makes no difference either. Talking therapy is for anyone who’s going through a bad time or who has emotional problems they can’t sort out on their own. …

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Modern day treatments.

http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/content/assets/pdf/publications/starting-today-background-paper-1.pdf The story of modern psychiatric care is relatively well documented. Modern mental health policy could be said to have started with the introduction of legislation to control the governance of lunatic asylums in early Victorian times and has evolved from there. The central pieces of legislation were the 1845 Lunacy Act and County Asylums …

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Right or wrong?

In 1890, T. Claye Shaw and Harrison Cripps related the case of a male patient at Banstead asylum who was suffering from general paralysis of the insane – a diagnosis now believed to refer to neurosyphilis. Post-mortem examinations of these patients often found large amounts of cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in the skull, and it was findings like …

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Trepanation.

http://mentalillness.umwblogs.org/stone-age/trepanation/ Trepanning is one of the oldest recorded surgical procedures and has been documented world wide. Although trepanning was used over many time periods, the procedure was first used in the Stone Age. Researchers have found evidence of trepanation used in North America, South America, Africa, and Europe (Missios, 2007). Trepanation in North America: -Gradual …

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Facts.

- Before mid 1800′s was common to believe that people with mental illness was caused by the devil. – patients made to live in unsanitary conditions. – Some people made to live in cages. – given minimal food. – careers thought the deserved to be treated like animals. Post 1850′s – science was progressing. – …

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More treatments.

http://www.everydayhealth.com/pictures/worst-mental-health-treatments-history/#01 Moral treatment – In the 18th century, some believed that mental illness was a moral issue that could be treated through humane care and instilling moral discipline. Strategies included hospitalization, isolation, and discussion about an individual’s wrong beliefs. “Despite its limitations, its respectful treatment of people with mental illness and its efforts to meet …

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Treatments.

http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/283/2/the-history-of-mental-illness-from-skull-drills-to-happy-pills When staff did attempt to cure the patients, they followed the practices typical of the time period—purging and bloodletting, the most common. Other treatments included dousing the patient in either hot or ice-cold water to shock their minds back into a normal state. The belief that patients needed to choose rationality over insanity led …

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Asylums in the news.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2386683/Bedlam-graveyard-unearthed-beneath-City-London-Crossrail-dig-reveals-bones-patients-notorious-asylum.html It is thought the works, for the £15 billion Crossrail project, will eventually yield up to 4,000 bodies, some dating back 450 years. The graveyard, built on the Bethlem Hospital’s vegetable patch in the 1560s after churchyards around the city started to overflow, was used to bury London’s poor and religious non-conformists as well …

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‘Bedlam’ notable patients.

Augustus Pugin – An English Architect best known for his pioneering role in the Gothic Revival style and his designs for the interior of the Palace of Westminster. In 1852 he suffered a complete breakdown, resulting in a four month stay at Bethlem Hospital. Located at St George’s fields, the hospital overlooked St George’s Cathedral, the …

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Bethlem ‘bedlam’ Asylum.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bethlem_Royal_Hospital The Bethlem Royal Hospital is a hospital in London for the treatment of mental illness. It has moved three times from its original location, and is Europe’s first and oldest institution to specialise in mental illnesses. It has been known by various names including St Mary Bethlehem, Bethlem Hospital, Bethlehem Hospital and, informally and most notoriously, Bedlam. It …

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Why did the asylums close?

They had become to large, unwieldy and the system had opened itself up to abuse.  In 1961 the Minister of Health, Enoch Powell was invited to speak at the AGM of the National Association for Mental Health.  In his speech he announced that it the government of the day intended to “the elimination of by …

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About mental asylums.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-27148737 The first recorded Lunatic Asylum in Europe was the Bethlem Royal Hospital in London, it has been a part of London since 1247 when it was built as a priory. It became a hospital in 1330 and admitted its first mentally ill patients in 1407. Before the Madhouse Act of 1774, treatment of the …

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Mental disorders in history.

So after talking to Paddy about my ideas yesterday I’ve slightly changed my direction. From looking at schizophrenia I decided to go slightly more broad with my options and look into mental illness through history. How it has changed, how the treatments have changed, or just what treatments they used to do on patients. What …

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Reflect.

After some feedback, I realised that I have gone off on a bit of a tangent. I need to keep relating my research back to the lens and theme and make sure that I’m challenging opinions. I need to think how my research can change peoples perspectives and what they currently know, or what they …

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Revision of the wider context.

Using the theme of Science with the lens of truth, this essay will explore mental health and the truth behind the treatments, the validity of the things that we know about the conditions and the medicines. This essay focuses on the wider context of mental health, the causes and the treatments behind them, do they …

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Revisiting Semiotics.

Semiotics – all about the sending and receiving messages. It’s the transfer of communication between sender and receiver through different methods. For example oral, written, images, symbols, and body language. Written communication is a visual subset of visual communication, for example hieroglyphics. Shannon and Weaver model. Models like the Shannon and Weaver model help focus, …

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Brain abnormalities.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2416751/ An argument has raged back and forth as to whether the brain abnormalities in schizophrenia are either neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental in origin (Weinberger and Marenco 2003). The neurodevelopmental view held ascendancy until several recent studies which have now provided evidence of progressive brain deterioration (DeLisi et al 1997; Vita et al 1997; Mathalon et al 2001; Thompson …

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Schizophrenia – disease or genetic?

The brain differences found in people with schizophrenia are mainly the result of the disease itself or its treatment, as opposed to being caused by genetic factors, according to a Dutch study. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that significantly affects cognition and usually contributes to chronic problems with behavior and emotion. Along with a breakdown …

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A schizophrenic’s point of view.

http://www.viralnova.com/schizophrenic-art/ It was really interesting to see art done by people suffering with schizophrenia. It the drawings reflect how they feel inside, many showing multiple faces. Some showing how trapped they feel by it. I think one of the most interesting ones is the one shown above with the cats, its use of vivid colours …

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Exhibition work.

http://www.feelguide.com/2011/06/16/nathaniel-mellors-disturbing-hippy-dialects-merges-schizophrenia-and-art-at-venice-biennale/ Looking into existing work that was created with schizophrenia in mind, I came across this by Nathaniel Mellors. It struck me because it was so different from other art pieces that I had seen that all ran with a similar theme, but this 3D piece stood out. It’s first appearance is rather shocking and scary, …

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Specific Context.

What is required? What is it you are dealing with? What is the work you have done based on? Why is it important? You will need  sources to show that you are aware of this in context and knowledgeable about who is also writing on this subject and if there currently exists visual communication related …

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Medication.

In this prospective multicentre, open-label, 6-month study (Paliperidone Palmitate Flexible Dosing in Schizophrenia [PALMFlexS]), tolerability, safety and treatment response with paliperidone palmitate (PP) were explored in patients with acute symptoms of schizophrenia following switching from previously unsuccessful treatment with oral antipsychotics. This pragmatic study was conducted in a large, more representative sample of the general …

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Stories.

After Peter’s death, among his writings, I found a note he’d sent to a gallery curator about his life and art which gave me great comfort: “I am not a pessimist, because I know that all of us are constantly changing through the passage of time or from experience. I don’t know how long I …

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Misconceptions.

Misconceptions about schizophrenia Split personality It is commonly thought that people with schizophrenia have a split personality, acting perfectly normally one minute and irrationally or bizarrely the next – this is not true. Violent behaviour Some people mistakenly equate schizophrenia with violent behaviour, but people with the condition are rarely dangerous. Any violent behaviour is usually sparked …

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REMIX lecture.

Using remix as a creative strategies. It’s a way of; – Rethinking the use of things. – Recontextualising, conveying different meanings e.g DeChampe’s urinal. He remixed the urinal to have a different meaning. People then remixed his once again changing the meaning. – The ‘ready made’. – We associate objects with thoughts due to culture. …

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Wider context.

Using the theme of Science with the lens of truth, this essay will explore mental health and the truth behind the treatments, the validity of the things that we know about the conditions and the medicines. This essay focuses on the wider context of mental health, the causes and the treatments behind them, do they …

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Causes.

hallucinations - hearing or seeing things that do not exist delusions - unusual beliefs not based on reality which often contradict the evidence muddled thoughts based on the hallucinations or delusions changes in behaviour Doctors often describe schizophrenia as a psychotic illness. This means sometimes a person may not be able to distinguish their own thoughts and ideas …

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Evidence suggests that cannabis is a component cause in the development and prognosis of psychosis, in which mechanisms of gene-environment interaction are most likely to explain this association. Potential new methods to directly link genetic liability to the effects of cannabis are discussed. Cannabis is currently the most commonly used illegal psychoactive substance amongst young …

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Studies.

    Scientists have discovered a remarkable similarity between the genetic faults behind both schizophrenia and manic depression in a breakthrough that is expected to open the way to new treatments for two of the most common mental illnesses, affecting millions of people. Previously doctors had assumed that the two conditions were quite separate. But …

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Science behind schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that targets the brain’s forebrain, hindbrain and limbic system. The limbic system is responsible for controlling moods and emotions. Therefore, individuals with schizophrenia have trouble telling what is real and not real, thinking clearly, conveying normal emotional responses and acting normal in social situations. Neurotransmitters, messengers of the brain who carry information from …

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Schizophrenia: caused by drugs?

While some people find their lives ruined by belief in imagined conspiracies that affect them personally – they may isolate from, or even attack, friends and family, and get diagnosed with psychosis – many other people believe in conspiracies on the basis of little evidence, yet have prominent places in society or even bodies like …

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Electroshock therapy.

http://www.livescience.com/19154-shock-therapy-depression-treatment.html While “shock therapy” has been used in psychiatry for more than 70 years, researchers had little idea how the controversial treatment worked to treat depression. Now, scientists say they may have solved the mystery.The therapy, which provides electrical stimulation to the brain and is extremely effective in treating severe depression, appears to affect how …

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Controversial medications.

http://www.livescience.com/37117-controversial-mental-health-treatments.html Psychiatric disorders are usually treated with talk therapy or medications, but when these treatments don’t work, doctors and patients sometimes turn to less common, controversial procedures. While these treatments, which include sending electric “shocks” through the brain, may sound extreme, some studies suggest that in certain patients, they can be very effective. Electroconvulsive therapy …

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Mental Health medications.

Medications are used to treat the symptoms of mental disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder (sometimes called manic-depressive illness), anxiety disorders, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sometimes medications are used with other treatments such as psychotherapy. This guide describes: Types of medications used to treat mental disorders Side effects of medications Directions for taking …

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Alzheimers?

Thinking about doing a specific disease. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. The word dementia describes a set of symptoms that can include memory loss and difficulties with thinking, problem-solving or language. These symptoms occur when the brain is damaged by certain diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. This factsheet describes the symptoms of Alzheimer’s …

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Draft.

Drafting out the wider context section of my essay. What should this consist of? What is the wider context of the specific aspect (your work explores) of your chosen theme exists? You should reference at least one or two sources to prove that this context is supported and not just based on your opinion. The …

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Homework.

For next week: -Have done a draft of the first section of the essay so it can be reviewed before next week at the latest. – Collate all the research done so far onto an A3 sheet of paper (or at least a USB) and identify research insights and the sources. Should include both text …

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How good is the idea?

I must be one of the few people in the world that actually enjoys getting constructive criticism, and this part of the session was basically aimed at that. Reading again through the brief and finalising what we want to do, giving us a direction to go in, it was useful to see what we needed …

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Reflection and projection.

Todays session was really useful (although I always hate reflecting on past projects, mainly because there’s always something to change that feels so obvious 3 weeks later..) reflecting on the last 2 modules, what we thing we did well, strength, weaknesses, how we worked and the kind of practice I might want to do, and …

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Interdisciplinary Practice briefing.

The brief Investigate and research hidden questions and perspectives to provide a basis for designed work that provokes an audience.  Choosing from only 3 different themes (science, economics, politics) and then a handful of lenses, I basically have to create my own project. Always having a very science based background and mind, my initial feelings …

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