Water Cloud Harvesting

Cloud or fog harvesting refers to the collection of water droplets using a net or canvas that forces the air to condense and turn into pure, drinkable water. The water vapour that makes up these formations condenses at a much faster rate than it evaporates, by placing an artificial cold surface in the atmosphere, this creates a barrier that causes the water vapour to change into water droplets or dew.

The collection of water vapour whether natural or artificial is an ancient process used by both people and animals, for example medieval dew ponds were created in England for the purpose of collecting dew in order to provide constant water access for the purpose of washing clothes, soaking cart wheels and as a water hole for farm animals. These dew ponds still exist throughout the country, however they now serve no purpose.

In modern times this form of water collection has been adapted to be more efficient. During the 1980′s the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) developed large fog collection systems on Mount Sutton in Quebec made from large pieces of canvas held tight between two wooden poles and underneath was a trough to capture the water droplets. Since them similar systems have been created around the world to provide pure drinking water to communities.

PHOG water

PHOG is a recent company that has been set up with the intention of collecting the purest water for communities in need. The group of young founders set up a ‘pilot site’ on Saint Vincent in the Grenadines, situated on the volcano La Soufriere. Here they placed polyurethane nets, in order to capture the fog. This test was a success, they collected a high amount of water droplets, much more than they anticipated. From this they wanted to extend the project and make it more sustainable. PHOG set out to raise $10,000 to make this happen and within the space of two months made $10,481.

The purpose of the fund raising was to create a sustainable and ecologically friends water source that is reliable and easily accessible. This process needs no additives as if is of the purest form, meaning that fresh water in less economically developed countries could become normal and easy. PHOG pride themselves on being an honest organisation, that want to benefit the community, simply taking the earths resources and using them for the good. If successful, this could spread worldwide and positively impact societies. ”By sharing our knowledge and resources related to cloud and fog harvesting and inviting people around the world to be a part of the solution.”

“Water access and distribution is one of the primary challenges facing the world today, and we are committed to doing our part to address it. We are dedicated to creating clean water communities with people just like you, by sharing our knowledge and resources related to cloud and fog harvesting and inviting people around the world to be a part of the solution.” (http://phogwater.com/#mission)

PHOG

How things stand at the moment, the main source of the worlds water for drinking and agriculture is from ground water. However, this method of pumping water from aquifers uses up a large amount of energy and can lead to groundwater depletion and a decline in long-term water levels. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, groundwater depletion can lead to issues with wells drying up, a decline in water quality, a reduction in surface water levels and further increased costs for pumping. Even surface water sources like rivers and lakes are susceptible to all sorts of contamination.

So the majority of the world uses groundwater as drinking water, however, this uses valuable energy, time and money.

Berndnaut Smilde

Berndnaut Smilde is a dutch artist that specialises in making permanent and temporary installations. These works are inspired by his interest in the physical nature of construction and deconstruction.

In recent years Smilde has experimented with creating cloud like forms indoors by using the most simple of methods. He simply dampens the atmosphere with water spray and then released smoke using a smoke machine. By adding the water into the room this causes the smoke to stick making a heavy mass and in turn resembling a cloud. This however is temporary and lasts for only a few seconds.

Nimbus Sankt Peter 2014

Nimbus Dumont 2014

Nimbus D’Aspremont 2012

As the outcome is only temporary the only thing left behind is a photograph. Smilde makes hundreds of these clouds as well as taking hundreds of photos, this then becomes an elimination process in which he choses the best, most effective images from the bunch. No two outcomes are the same as there is no way in which you can manipulate the shape as such, only the density, the location and the whereabouts in the room.

Looking at these images creates a sense of curiosity, it is a strange and mysterious concept having a cloud indoors, and with them looking so realistic it truly makes you feel intrigued as to how this has happened. As a viewer the surreal imagery before me becomes a sense of escapism, it takes me back to my childhood when anything was possible and in some ways reminds me of something you could see in ‘Alice in Wonderland’. The beauty of Smilde’s work is not only in the cloud itself but the location also. There is a variation from a scabby disused buildings to a pristine churches. I personally enjoy the contrast between the mystical, white cloud and the rough, forgotten about rooms as seen in ‘Nimbus Dumont’ above. This is because of the unlikely match, having something so perfect in such a rustic environment in someways creates unity between old and new, not only that by I feel that it adds depth and hope into what is before you. In a way they speak to the viewer, they, to me imply that things can change, anything can be beautiful, natural phenomenon and men made structures can be at one.

The appearance of the spaces in which these instillations are created really is a massive factor on the impact of the final photograph. Although in saying this, even the images that have been shot in what looks like a warehouse are still just as magical as the next.

The process in which Smilde creates these pieces isn’t particularly complicated.

Cloudbusting

I came to search the term ‘Cloudbusting’ because of the track sang by Kate Bush little did I know that this song tells the story of Wilhelm Reich an Austrian psychoanalyst that insisted to have studied orgone energy that he discovered in 1939. Orgone energy is supposedly a universal life force or bio-electrical charge that can be found in the body or atmosphere, he used this theory to explain phenomenons from weather to orgasms. 

But what is cloud busting?

In nature, orgone energy is a mass free energy that resides in the water, soil and atmosphere found on the earth, which is manipulable by an uncomplicated piece of machinery called a cloud buster or CLB. Designed by Reich he managed to demonstrate the existence of this energy visually and eventually he succeeded in controlling the weather. However, orgonomy is a complex field with only very few being able to understand it completely and successfully mastering orgone energy weather engineering.

Basic Facts of Orgone Energy:

‘ 1. Orgone energy forms an envelope around the earth, where its concentration is greater than in extraterrestrial space. This envelope moves around the earth from west to east, slightly faster than the physical-material planet. The orgone energy envelope may be envisioned as a bioenergenic torque drive imparting spin to the planet, such torque arising from the heliotropism of living organisms.

* 2. The orgone energy envelope is the agency by which the world’s weather is carried on its generally west to east motion around the earth.

* 3. Orgone energy motion takes place in the waveform of the spinning wave of kreirelwclle (KRW). The KRW appears in this form when perceived in the orgone accumulator. Similar motion on a huge scale in the atmosphere imparts a specific shaping effect to cloud masses that is directly observable as a “KRW signature.” This signature is not identified in any cloud atlas or other work on cloud physics known to the writer of this survey, but is objective over thousands of square miles of ocean and can be readily photographed The KRW signature in clouds is independent of wind movement.

* 4. Orgone energy has a powerful affinity for the liquid state of matter, especially water.

* 5. Orgone energy is negatively entropic, following the law of reversed or orgonomic potential. Orgone energy flows from low potential states to high potential states. Charged bodies attract bodies of lesser charge, and withdraw that lesser charge to the limit of their own capacity level.

* 6. Rows of parallel, hollow metal pipes grounded into water and suitably directed into the atmosphere, have the ability to raise and lower orgonotic potentials in the atmosphere. Such a device is known as a cloudbuster. The formal parameters of meteorology may be manipulated and controlled by such devices through such engineering operations at the primary level.

* 7. The orgone energy envelope – the womb of the weather — is highly sensitive, continuous, and responsive on a vast and elastic scale to stimuli from cloudbusters. Because of continuity of this energy envelope, the effects of such stimuli can extend over millions of square miles. Billions of tons of atmosphere and atmospheric water vapor can be decisively affected in their concentration, distribution and general behaviour.

* 8. Orgone energy engineering deals with a living, non-electric, universal energy to which current formal education, training and physics give only partial access. A successful orgone engineer in weather control must necessarily be perceptive sensitive to movements and changes in the atmosphere induced by his operations, and be able to guide his apparatus accordingly. He must be able to both understand and tolerate the extremely powerful corresponding movements of the orgone energy in his own biosystem. He must be a skilled orgonomic observer, with a functioning First Orgonotic Sense. i.e. with the ability to perceive the energy directly.

* 9. All the procedures and reactions involved in orgone energy weather engineering are functional and not mechanical. A functional mode of mentation is therefore, an essential prerequisite for responsible and effective weather control. Persons with no attainment to living processes are not suited to engineering operations of the kind described.

* 10. There are at the present time no reel experts in this field, only a few men whose ignorance is slightly less vast than that of their fellows unexposed to the new principles.’ (http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.co.uk/2012/11/the-cloudbuster-of-wilhelm-reich.html)

 The Cloud Buster

The cloud buster is comprised of a row, or rows of hollow metal pipes, one end of these is placed into water, the other being held by a rack, this creates a simple CLB known as a “rack unit”. These are designed in rows so that they may be swung on a pivot for effectiveness, although there are variants of this. All weather modification operations possible through orgone energy engineering can be effected with such a device.

Reich suggested that these grounded pipes, submerged in water collected the orgone energy from the atmosphere and placed it into the water. Weather control and modification are effected by lowering the orgonotic potentials in the atmosphere wherever the CLB is pointed. According to the particular effect desired, regional weather changes ensue from such shifts in orgonotic potential.

Aiming the CLB near a cloud would cause augmentation of the cloud, i.e., expand the cloud in space. Reich’s idea of CLB functioning is that the moisture-binding, moisture attracting orgone energy is taken from the clouds into the water by the draw pipes.

cloudbuster

Lenticular Clouds

Lenticular clouds are a variation of altocumulus cloud named altocumulus lenticularis. These clouds form when the air reaches an obstruction as it flows along the surface of the earth, these obstructions can be from man made obstacles such as buildings and bridges or natural formations like mountains and valleys. As the air condenses, if the temperature at the crest of the cloud wave drops to the ‘dew point’, it will form these lense-shaped clouds. The dew point being the temperature at which the water vapour condenses into liquid at the same rate to which it evaporates. Their unique shape often leads them to be mistaken for UFOs.

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Popular nicknames for these clouds are:

  • Lennies
  • UFO Clouds
  • Flying Saucer Clouds
  • Clouds of heaven
  • Angelship clouds
  • Wave clouds

Lenticular clouds are huge, dense masses of swirling cloud that remains stationary and can stay visible in any one place for several hours as other more common clouds pass by, until it disperses into nothing. The uniqueness of the shapes that these clouds undertake are unlike any others, they often take the shape of flying saucers or other related extraterrestrial artefacts. The fact that the conditions for these to form are very precise and are only usually created in remote areas near mountains, it is to no surprise that people can mistaken them for UFOs.

There are also other theories related to UFO sightings, that say that UFOs use or create these clouds to hide inside as a form of camouflage. The rarity of seeing such formations combined with general public ignorance of the existence of lenticular clouds, also make them a popular scapegoat when government agencies try to explain high-profile sightings.

One of the most famous UFO sightings happened in 1953 in South California where an aircraft engineer called Clarence Johnson spotted a motionless object in the sky at around sunset. The following day a pilot, Rudy Thoren reported seeing the same mysterious object whilst flying his plane that had five passengers, all giving the same account. With all witness’ being somewhat credible the government took it seriously as a UFO but after much deliberation and investigation it was decided that the sighting was in fact a lenticular cloud.

 

The Cloudspotter’s Guide

‘Although cloudspotting is an activity best undertaken with time on your hands, it is something that everyone can enjoy. Clouds are the most egalitarian of nature’s displays, since each one of us has a good view of them, so it really doesn’t matter where you are.’ – The Cloudspotter’s Guide

Cloudspotter's

This book has been kindly lent to me by a friends dad! As of yet I have not read it but on flicking through the sections it looks really interesting. It’s written in an informal manner and so I am looking forward to having a read. There are a number of sections that focus on particular types of clouds (all the ones that I discussed in an earlier post). However, this seems to go into depth and in a way that I will understand a lot more than scientific jibber jabber.

Clouds, Pollution and Global Warming

Does pollution in the atmosphere affect clouds?

Globally scientists have been looking into global warming for years, but it is often that none completely agree on the same things, for example, they agree on the fact that the population are releasing far too much carbon dioxide into the earths atmosphere but the rate in which it is warming has not been decided on.

Global warming is a massive factor in todays society, we are constantly being reminded to recycle, to eat only organic food and encouraged to avoid using aerosols, but does this affect clouds?

A recent study conducted by Professor Ilan Koren from the Wiezmann Institute analyzed a unique type of cloud formation to determine if clouds are changing. The findings from this suggest that since the industrial revolution there has been a rise in cloud cover throughout the world, it also suggests that cloud formations are growing in height and size. The article that recently featured in Science concludes that the formation of warm clouds (CL) that are created over oceans, depends on the amount of pollution in the atmosphere. As discussed in an earlier post, liquid particles require aerosols in order to form a cloud, with pollution being greater than ever before, these particles are finding it easier to find a ‘host’.

Wiezmann’s study was conducted near ‘horse latitudes’ which are subtropical latitudes the can be found 30 degree north or south of the equator. Here there is little precipitation and little if no wind. This test was aimed to discover how and if added aerosols would change cloud formations, this would of course be a difficult task and in so choosing an area with little wind, steady temperature and very little cloud cover proved to be a perfect ‘lab’ (an atmospheric region controlled by well-defined meteorological conditions).

“We showed that convective clouds do not necessarily stop being aerosol-limited; under relatively polluted conditions the increase in aerosol loading will make the clouds taller, larger and their rain-rate stronger. As the area of this cloud cover grows, it reflects more of the shortwave radiation; but as the clouds get taller, their greenhouse effect becomes more significant, counteracting about half of their total cooling effect.” Weizmann Koren (http://www.reportingclimatescience.com/news-stories/article/pollution-may-make-for-bigger-clouds-says-research.html).

 

Meteorology and Clouds

Meteorology is the interdisciplinary study of the atmosphere either on a short time scale or long, that affects the weather. Under meteorology a cloud is described as a visible mass of liquid droplets or frozen particles of water that are suspended in the air above a planetary body.

The branch of meteorology or atmospheric sciences that focus’ on the study of clouds is referred to cloud physics, this is the directed examination of physical process’ that lead to the growth, formation and precipitation of clouds. Clouds can be differentiated into categories of warm, that consist of microscopic droplets liquid water and cold that is made up of frozen droplets, however there are also mixed phase clouds that contain both elements. All types of clouds are formed by the condensation of water vapour. A number of different types of cloud can be formed dependant on the pressure and temperature that has caused condensation, these can sit at various altitudes.

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Cloud level and Cloud type

High clouds (CH) Base usually 20,000 ft or above, over land

Cirrus – Latin word meaning ringlet or curling lock of hair

A cirrus cloud can be characterised by thin wispy layers that are usually white or light grey in colour. These clouds can often indicate a change in weather conditions, suggest precipitation will follow suit. Cirrus clouds do not precipitate as such, although they do release ice crystals that evaporate before reaching land.

Cirrus

Cirrocumulus – cirro (curl of hair) – cumulus (heaped)

These clouds are often short lived, they usually form due to the break up of the Cumulonimbus (CL) or as a transitionary phase within and area of Cirrus clouds (CH). As seen below the Cirrocumulus clouds are often found in clusters predominantly white and fluffy in appearance, almost resembling a small ball of cotton wool. Although the name refers to each individual cloud it is also used to refer to an entire area in which they have formed. The Cirrocumulus never creates a shadow as it is near translucent.

Cirrocumulus

Cirrostratus - 

The Cirrostratus cloud can be characterised by it’s very thin and consistent appearance. Due to the thinness of the cloud itself it can be extremely difficult to detect and can sometimes create a ‘halo’ around the sun when it takes form of the cirrostratus nebulosus (featureless and uniform). 

There are two most common forms of the cirrostratus:

Cirrostratus Nebulosus – Latin Meaning, full of vapour, foggy, cloudy

Cirrostratus Fibratus – Latin Meaning, fibrous

These are formed by strong winds that continue to blow at high altitudes, causing them to accommodate a large area of the sky. Like the cirrocumulus the cirrostratus also does not produce precipitation itself but often indicates imminent rain.

Cirrostratus

 

Medium clouds (CM) Base usually between 6,500 and 20,000 ft over land

Altocumulus  - Alto (middle) – culmus (heaped)

Altocumulus often appear in a cluster or sheet of grey/white bundles or rolls that can be conjoined, these are however regularly hidden by lower clouds. This cloud species can take many forms and again can be a pre-warning to a change in weather. Towering altocumulus, known as altocumulus castellanus, frequently signals the development of thunderstorms later in the day, as it shows instability and convection in the middle levels of the troposphere, the area where towering cumulus clouds can turn into cumulonimbus (CL). Satalite images have shown that the altocumulus has the abilities to create formations for thousands of square miles.

Altocumulus-floccus

Altostratus – Alto (middle) – stratus (layered)

The Altostratus can be characterised by it’s grey/blue appearance, often forming in a thick sheet although the sun can usually be seen through it. This cloud can precipitate in the form of virga, a type of rain that can be seen in streaks but dissolves before reaching the ground. If the precipitation becomes heavier or intensify this cloud has the abilities to fall lower and become a nimbostratus (see below).

Altostratus_translucidus

Nimbostratus - 

Like the altostratus this mid level cloud also produces precipitation, often appears darker at its base. This cloud usually occurs due to advancing hot air that is humid and unstable, this itself is not associated with thunderstorms, however, the cumulonimbus and nimbostratus can occasionally interact. This phenomenon happens very rarely, when they meet they will only interact with the immediate area surrounding the cloud. The nimbostratus can be a sign of steady to moderate rain that could perhaps last for a number of days depending on the speed of the occluded front (when cold and hot air passes).

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Low clouds (CL) Base usually below 6,500 ft over land

Stratocumulus - 

The stratocumulus cloud can be identified by their large dark appearance, occurring in a round mass, commonly featuring in groups, lines or waves across the sky. These low formation clouds are created by weak convective currents that create layers due to the stable air above preventing progressive vertical development.  Stratocumulus tend not to precipitate if they do they have the capabilities to release light rain or snow. These clouds are however often seen before or after bad weather, therefore they can be an indication of thunderstorms or heavy downpours.

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Stratus - latin strato meaning ‘layer’

Stratus clouds are recognised through their solid flat base and horizontal sheet-like platforms. These types of clouds generally cause light drizzle or a limited supply of snow. They form through the slow rise of morning fog or due to cold air travelling at a small elevation over land, hence why they are sometimes referred to as ‘high fog’. Although they produce a small amount of precipitation, this does not necessarily mean they have any effect on the atmosphere.

Stratus-Opacus-Uniformis

Cumulus – latin Cumulo meaning heaped

Cumulus clouds are generally flat based although the tops are often labelled as resembling cotton. These clouds have a distinguishing vertical buildup that have a definitive perimeter whilst appearing in clusters. Cumulus can indicate the arrival of other cloud formations like the cumulonimbus, normally they do not precipitate and if so it will be very little, but depending on the surround atmosphere factors such as moisture or a change in temperature can cause these to morph into the cumulonimbus that do precipitate. These clouds have the capability to cool the earth by reflecting incoming solar rays.

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Cumulonimbus –  latin meaning cumulus (heaped) and nimbus (rainstorm)

Cumulonimbus are generally thick, soaring vertical cloud formations identified with thunderstorms and atmospheric activity. They are formed from water vapour being carried upwards by powerful air streams. These clouds can be created singularly or in groups, and are able to generate many types of serious weather, such as: lightning, hail and tornadoes. The base of these clouds can expand over a number of miles and may be active within both low and medium range forming a mushroom shape.

A dying monsoon storm

 

Understanding how clouds affect the climate has been a difficult proposition. What controls the makeup of the low clouds that cool the atmosphere or the high ones that trap heat underneath?

Clouds need tiny particles called aerosols that rise in the atmosphere, in order to form. These aerosols – natural ones like sea salt or dust, or such human-made ones as soot – form nuclei around which the cloud droplets condense. In relatively clean environments, clouds can only grow as large as the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere allows: They will be the limiting factor in cloud formation.

Everything About One Thing

“Cultivating an environment conductive to research investigations is an important step in every designer’s professional development” - Jenn and Kenn Viscocky O’Grady, A Designers Research Manual Rockport 2008

This brief asks to focus on one topic that fits into any of the following themes, Globalism, Activism or Community. A number of seminars have so far introduced me to each area, but only slightly however, before going ahead and choosing a theme I feel it will be easier to narrow down a possible topic and after doing research on that I can then relate it to either of the three.

To being on finding a topic I have taken to doing a quick mind map where I jotted down initial thoughts, things I like or ‘Things That Are Pretty Decent’. I always find the process helpful when beginning a project, it allows me to see the words clearly, find links and think about where I can take it next.

The outcome was successful, I found a number of ideas that could easily be taken further. Once this was completed I asked a number of my peers to take a look and mark the topics that they feel could make a good project.

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- Results -

Beards 5 dots

Grandads  4 dots

Clouds 3 dots

Coats 3 dots

Superstitions 3 dots

Dinosaurs 2 dots

Diamonds 2 dots

Rain 2 dots

Festivals 2 dots

Christmas Dinner 2 dots

Bedtime  1 dot

Warm things 1 dot

Socks 1 dot

Penguins 1 dot

Spooning 1 dot

Chocolate 1 dot

Wine 1 dot

Asking people to mark the subjects that they think could make an interesting result has helped me narrow down the topics greatly. There were 13 in total that did not receive any votes out of a possible 30 possibilities, although they may be interesting to me it is good to see what appeals to a wider audience. It is also interesting to see how different people are drawn to different subjects.

The next step is to look into the highest scorers in a bit more depth. This will hopefully open up a few opportunities that I can take further.

Activism

What is Activism?

‘Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct socialpoliticaleconomic, or environmental change, or stasis. Various forms of activism range from writing letters to newspapers or politicians, political campaigning, economic activism such as boycotts or preferentially patronising businesses, rallies, street marchesstrikessit-ins, and hunger strikes. Research is beginning to explore how activist groups in the United States and Canada are using social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action.’

Activism is a way in which to create a change whether it be in an aggressive or peaceful manner. I had pre conceded ideas that activism was an aggressive form of political protest, however this is clearly not the case.

Activist groups can be found throughout the world, although often for different causes they are all after the same thing, CHANGE. Although, in saying this activism can be on a local or global scale. In 2011 Occupy Wall Street began, people took to the streets of New York to show their anger for the economic inequality that can be seen throughout America, this protest movement was mostly peaceful, participators wanted their voices to be heard. This organised movement soon spread throughout 100 different cities in the U.S and to over 1000 different countries and therefore, this local movement became worldwide. The cities were different but the cause was the same. 

Protests do not need to include thousands of people to make an attempt of change. Examples like Pussy Riot or even John Lennon and Yoko Ono have spoken out in small groups, nothing may have changed but there voices have been heard, other people have been spurred on to question the world in which we live in and in turn hopefully aim to resolve an issue also by joining these protests.

Activism does not only consist of protests but it is anything that aims to make a direct social, economical, political or environmental change. This can be by carrying out a simple partition to stop a building being torn down or tying yourself to a tree. It can be through writing, teaching, speaking, planning events, or art, buildings, blogging, or podcasts. It is accessible to everyone on the planet but often people ‘chicken out’.

 

Globalism and Globalisation

What is globalisation?

‘Globalisation is the process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected as a result of massively increased trade and cultural exchange. Globalisation has increased the production of goods and services. The biggest companies are no longer national firms but multinational corporations with subsidiaries in many countries.’ (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/globalisation/globalisation_rev1.shtml)

Globalisation is something that effects everything on earth, it is a global problem that cannot be solved locally in just one area. In today’s age many things are much more accessible and this is causing the world to be ‘westernised’. Countries, cities and villages are rapidly losing their identities and cultures.

What is westernisation?

‘Westernisation, is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values.’ (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westernization)

It is evident that westernisation has become a huge part of life. I myself have been on holiday to a number of different places and seen business’ that are British or American, for example, Mc Donald’s is now a worldwide organisation, with it’s net worth being that of $61.95 billion and according to http://www.smashinglists.com/ it is the 8th most valuable company in the world, the 1st being Mac. Being so valuable it is no wonder that Mc Donald’s and many other companies alike are taking over the planet. The power that these business’ hold is crippling the world.

The growth of these companies has undoubtably risen since the information age has began. With such things as the internet and mobile phones anyone person can reach another in any part of the world whether that be by e-mail or phone conversation with little hassle, of course this has united the world in one sense but this is stripping away the identity of it’s occupants. Cultures are dying, traditional tribes are vanishing and countries are beginning to all look the same. 

People are easily influenced by things around them regardless of what they like to think. However obvious it is that the western world is taking over the globe there are still factors of other cultures that influence us whether it be in lifestyle, fashion or religion. There is a huge trend at the moment in Britain for females to wear gems on their foreheads as if it were a bindi. Of course these girls or women have no idea what the bindi actually represents, it is just a piece of fashion jewellery to them, they do not understand that this form of expression is in fact a symbol that changes colour throughout the stages of life in Indian/Hindu culture. From this not only are we removing identities from countries but also religions and people. Something so significant to a culture has now been westernised by 15 year old girls.

Before looking into globalisation I was aware of the problem but I never really took the time to think about it, I guess ignorance is bliss. If globalisation and/or westernisation continues to get stronger everywhere will be the same, there will be no need to explore new places as there with be no new things to see.